NEW DELHI: Frail and gaunt, Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar gave himself up to the British at Humayun’s Tomb at the end of a tense day on September 21, 1857. Bahadur Shah Zafar or Bahadur Shah II (Persian: بهادرشاه ظفر‎) (born as Mirza Abu Zafar Siraj-ud-din Muhammad) (24 October 1775 – 7 November 1862) was the last Mughal emperor. Although the commander imposed "heavy taxation" on the rajas, he thought it necessary to leave the Sikhs undisturbed in their fortified city of Anandpur and refused to wage war against them out of "genuine respect" for their religion. [5] Nevertheless, the emperor still persisted in entrusting his son with responsibilities, and in 1687, Aurangzeb ordered Mu'azzam to march against the sultanate of Golconda. In September 1857 the British established their control over Delhi and Bahadur Shah was imprisoned. Aurangzeb learned about the plot and sent Mu'azzam's mother Begum Nawab Bai to dissuade Mu'azzam from rebellion. His men were sent to bring Singh to the city for an interview with him, where Singh received "special robes of honour" and a jewelled scarf. Historian William Irvine wrote that as his "camp drew nearer desertions from Kam Bakhsh became more and more frequent". [43] His follower, Gulab Singh (who was "dressed like" Bahadur), entered the fight and was killed. Shamas pretended submission and later started attacking them. The story of Bahadur Shah Zafar, the last mughal, is the most tragic part of the glory called Mughal Dynasty. But when Zafar ultimately did this, Hakim Ahsanullah Khan betrayed him by providing evidence against him at the trial in return for a pardon for himself. Memories of Akhtari 8 min read. The last Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah Zafar was tried in court and sentenced to life imprisonment. B) Begum Zinat Mahal. C) 1850. He was over sixty when he ascended to the throne of Delhi. He declared that he was a governor under emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar. The trial was a consequence of the Sepoy Mutiny and lasted for 41 days, had 19 hearings, 21 witnesses and over a hundred documents in Persian and Urdu, with their English translations, were produced in the court. He was a very good poet and a calligrapher as well as a Sufi. 41. ], Zafar was tried and charged on four counts:[15], 1) Aiding and abetting the mutinies of the troops, 2) Encouraging and assisting divers persons in waging war against the British Government. kaeh do in hassretoń se kahīń aur jā bas'éń Though Durgadas Rathore of the Rathore clan who was ambitious of conquering Jodhpur from the Mughals, took advantage of this opportunity and fought a war to prevent Aurangzeb getting hold of Ajit, he tore through Delhi with his men and successfully escorted the Prince and the widows of Jaswant Singh to Jodhpur. He was the son of Akbar Shah from his Hindu wife Lalbai. mehakShrgll mehakShrgll B e g u m S h a h i b a z e e n a t w a s t h e w i f e o f b a h a d u r s h a h z a f a r . [37][38], Sikhs used their newly established power to remove Mughal officials and replace them with Sikhs. Bahadur Shah Zafar was a noted Urdu poet, having written a number of Urdu ghazals. Personal Life & Legacy He had four wives, Begum Ashraf Mahal, Begum Akhtar Mahal, Begum Zeenat Mahal, and Begum Taj Mahal. [26] In an incident in which one of his followers was bitten by a snake, Zafar tried to cure him by giving a "seal of Bezoar" (a stone antidote to poison) and some water on which he had breathed to the man to drink. [27] In April 1708, Shah's envoy Maktabar Khan came to Kam Bakhsh's court. The emperor issued an edict to the zamindars (landlord) of Jammu to take the Sikh captive if possible. [8], The administration of the city and its new occupying army was described as "chaotic and troublesome", which functioned "haphazardly". B) 1859. [17], Jaswant Singh was the leader of the Rathore in Jodhpur (in Rajputana, in present-day Indian state Rajasthan) during Aurangzeb's reign. D) 1859 Despite this, he was the primary accused in the trial for the rebellion. When she died, the location of Zafar's grave had already been forgotten and "could not be located," so she was buried in a roughly similar position near a tree where his grave was assumed to be. Q17- Bahadur Shah Zafar passed away in . Though dismayed by the looting and disorder, he gave his public support to the rebellion. After his defeat, he said:[4][unreliable source? [5], On 12 May 1857, Zafar held his first formal audience in several years. اِک شاخِ گل پہ بیٹھ کے بُلبُل ہے شادماں [13] It was the first case to be tried at the Red Fort. He appealed to Muslims in name of religion and declared a jihad against the Sikhs. The court that he maintained was home to several prolific Urdu writers, including Mirza Ghalib, Dagh, Mumin, and Zauq. [26] The newspaper Delhi Urdu Akhbaar described him as "one of the leading saints of the age, approved of by the divine court. June 1858 – Rani Lakshmibai killed. He was a poet, musician, and calligrapher, more an aesthete than a political leader. قسمت میں قید لکھی تھی فصلِ بہار میں 41. As long as there remains the scent of Iman in the hearts of our Ghazis, so long shall the sword of Hindustan flash before the throne of London. दिन ज़िन्दगी के ख़त्म हुए शाम हो गई Before Bahadur Shah's arrival in December, Banda had captured the sarkar of Sirhind, several parganas of the sarkar of Hissar, and had invaded the sarkar of Saharanpur. They next killed Sayyid Hussain Khan Barha, the commandant of Mewat and many other officers (September, 1708). Azam prepared to march to Agra and declare himself successor,[13] but was defeated by Mu'azzam at the Battle of Jajau in June 1707. Taqarrub Khan reported it to Kam Bakhsh, who ordered the practise stopped. Feb 19, 2017 - Explore Narong Budhraja's board "Bahadur Shah Zafar" on Pinterest. There's a good probability that descendants of Jawan Bakht and Shah Zamani Begum might have survived and have been living in Rangoon. do ārzū méń kaT gayé do intezār méń According to Irvine, when he was "weakened by loss of blood", Bahadur Shah took him and his son Bariqullah prisoner. It has strewn thorns in the garden of my heart But he wasn’t kept there for long and moved to Red Fort. [21], The city of Udaipur (in Rajputana, present day Indian state of Rajasthan) was annexed to the Mughal Empire by Akbar the Great in 1576 after Mughal victory in the Battle of Haldighati. Who is Real Moghal. During one such repair work, the laborers came across two graves which had stone inscriptions marking the grave as that of Bahadur Shah Zafar and the other of his wife Zinat Mahal. What space is there for them in this besmirched heart? C) Begum Gazal Mahal. [11] That year Mu'azzam was appointed governor of Akbarabad, and in 1696 he was transferred to Lahore. Mirza Abu Zafar Sirajuddin Muhammad Bahadur Shah Zafar (1775 – 1862), was the last Mughal emperor & a member of the Timurid Dynasty. کس کی بنی ہے عالمِ ناپائیدار میں But instead, Red Fort in Delhi was selected for the trial. [16] The eighty-two-year old poet-king was harassed by the mutineers and was neither inclined to nor capable of providing any real leadership. They called on Shamas Khan, the Faujdar of Jalandhar, to effect reforms and hand over the treasury. The British tried their best to get the loyalty of the Indians. Shah gave him the title of Mirza Rajah, and he received gifts valued at 100,000 rupees. A) 1858. He died in exile on 7 November 1862 in Rangoon, which is now Yangon, the capital of Burma. Enraged at this, Aurangzeb sent his most able commander Raja Jai Singh to capture Shivaji and he was successful. It was later believed that Bahadur Shah was not directly responsible for the massacre, but that he may have been able to prevent it, and he was therefore considered a consenting party during his trial. My trust is in God, and whatever is best will happen. Before taking Sirhind in the Battle of Chappar Chiri, Banda captured Shahabad, Sadhaura and Banur. Updated: 05 Oct 2019, 10:40 AM IST Shreya Ila Anasuya. A family who almost went into ruination because they were too careful with … [19] On 6 November, the British Commissioner H.N. B) 1845. Bahādur Shāh II, also called Bahādur Shāh Ẓafar, (born October 24, 1775, Delhi, India—died November 7, 1862, Rangoon [now Yangon], Myanmar), the last Mughal emperor of India (reigned 1837–57). [30][unreliable source? In the meantime, Shah's aid Mihrab Khan was ordered to take possession of Jodhpur. While the emperor may have been overstating his impotence before the sepoys, the fact remains that the sepoys had felt powerful enough to dictate terms to anybody. [28] This philosophy was implemented by his court which embodied a multicultural composite Hindu-Islamic Mughal culture. din zindagī ke Khatm hué shām ho gayī Delhi was recaptured from the rebel forces in September 1857. 38. [7] When the sepoys first arrived at Bahadur Shah Zafar's court, he asked them why they had come to him, because he had no means of maintaining them. بُلبُل کو پاسباں سے نہ صیاد سے گلہ In 1862, at the age of 87, he had reportedly acquired some illness. It is unfortunate that this great commander of the First Indian War of Indepen- dence remains buried in a foreign land. Zafar (meaning 'victory' in Persian) was a poet and an artist. कितना है बदनसीब "ज़फ़र″ दफ़्न के लिए [24], Rivalry developed between Taqarrub Khan and Ahsan Khan. Bahadur Shah Zafar was exiled to Rangoon, Burma, in 1858, along with his wife Zeenat Mahal and some of the of the remaining members of the family. He and his wife Begum Zinat Mahal were sent to prison in Rangoon in October 1858. harvtxt error: no target: CITEREFDalrymple2006 (, Shahzada Muhammad Hidayat Afshar, Ilahi Bakhsh Bahadur, "Proceedings of the April 1858 Trial of Bahadur Shah Zafar 'King of Delhi, "Grave secrets of Yangon's imperial tomb", "Search the Collections | Victoria and Albert Museum", "Zoomify image: Poem composed by the Emperor Bahadhur Shah and addressed to the Governor General's Agent at Delhi February 1843", "[SASIALIT] bahadur shah zafar poem and its translation attempts", Extract of talk by Zafar's biographer William Dalrymple (British Library), Extracts from a book on Bahadur Shah Zafar, with details of exile and family, Links to further websites on Bahadur Shah Zafar, BBC Report on Bahadur Shah's possible descendants in Hyderabad, An article on Bahadur Shah's descendants in Delhi and Hyderabad, Another article on Bahadur Shah's descendants in Hyderabad, An article on Bahadur Shah's descendants in Kolkata, Forgotten Empress: Sultana Beghum sells tea in Kolkata, Hindustan Socialist Republican Association, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bahadur_Shah_Zafar&oldid=1002429536, Revolutionaries of the Indian Rebellion of 1857, Articles with dead external links from June 2019, Articles with permanently dead external links, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Persian-language text, Articles lacking reliable references from June 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2012, Articles with Hindi-language sources (hi), Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Abu Zafar Siraj-ud-din Muhammad Bahadur Shah, Raunaq Zamani Begum (possibly a granddaughter, d. 1930), This page was last edited on 24 January 2021, at 12:03. He was a poet, musician, and calligrapher, more an aesthete than a political leader. Once known as a playboy prince … After losing Lucknow, Begum Hazrat Mahal retreated to Faizabad and joined Maulavi Ahmadullah Shah, Nana Saheb and others in the battle of Shahjahanpur. To prepare for his death Davies commanded for the collection of lime and bricks and a spot was selected at the "back of Zafar's enclosure" for his burial. būlbūl ko pāsbāń se na saiyyād se gilā His reign was disturbed by several rebellions, the Sikhs under the leadership of Banda Singh Bahadur, Rajputs under Durgadas Rathore and fellow Mughal Kam Bakhsh but all of them were successfully quelled. Similarly, happened to Rani Avantibai. [43] The emperor issued orders to the rulers of Kumaon and Srinagar that if Bahadur tried to enter their province, he should be "sent to the Emperor". 39. Amber passed into Mughal hands without a war. Q18- The Company regime in India came to end in . An arched iron-grill bears his name and title. [26] In 1828, a decade before he succeeded the throne, Major Archer said that "Zafar is a man of spare figure and stature, plainly apparelled, almost approaching to meanness. The Maratha Empire had brought an end to the Mughal Empire in the Deccan during the 18th century and the regions of India formerly under Mughal rule had either been absorbed by the Marathas or had declared independence and become smaller kingdoms. She took an active part in organising the uprising against the British. A) 1858. But instead, Red Fort in Delhi was selected for the trial. He was the son of Akbar Shah from his Hindu wife Lalbai. He is resting, but not in peace, believe his admirers. Bahadur escaped the ensuing siege, this time taking refuge at Kulu in present-day Himachal Pradesh. The town was sacked and the Pirzadas killed. In 1862, he died in Rangoon. Singh was pardoned, became titular ruler of the region and was appointed governor of the province of Kabul before his death on 18 December 1678. [21], While the emperor was on his way to Deccan to punish Muhammad Kam Bakhsh the three Rajput Raja's of Amber, Udaipur and Jodhpur made a joint resistance to the Mughals. After the death of Amin Khan (governor of Kabul) he assumed that position in 1699, holding it until his father's death in 1707. ik shāKh-e-gūl pe baiTh ke būlbūl hé shādmāń [46] In the July battle, Bahadur was defeated and fled to the Jammu hills. Begum Akhtar epitomized Lucknow’s high culture in her music, poetry and personal style. However, Mirza Mughal had little military experience and was rejected by the sepoys. The subahdar of the province, Jan Sipar Khan, refused to hand over the money. A) Begum Hazrat Mahal. پھیلا کے پائوں سوئیں گے کنج مزار میں D) 1865 . The shrine of Bahadur Shah Zafar Dargah was built there after recovery of its tomb on 16 February 1991. Bahadur Shah was born when the British were still a modest coastal power in India. He was not to meet anybody without his father's prior consent. Nawab Bai brought Mu'azzam back to the Mughal court, where he spent the next several years under Aurangzeb's supervision. [30], According to Irvine, more soldiers deserted as the emperor's group neared. itnī jageh kahāń hé dil-e-dāGhdār méń He made his son Jahandar Shah commander of the advance guard, later replacing him with Khan Zaman. However, The East India Company exiled Jahangir after he attacked their resident, in the Red Fort,[2] paving the way for Zafar to assume the throne. He had at least thirty-two daughters including: Many individuals claim to be descendants of Bahadur Shah Zafar, living in places throughout India, such as Hyderabad, Aurangabad, Delhi, Bhopal, Kolkata, Bihar, and Bangalore. He was buried on 15 May in the courtyard of the Moti Masjid (Pearl Mosque) in Mehrauli, which he built near the dargah of Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki. With trouble arising in a pargana of Deoband and Sikh converts complaining of imprisonment and persecution by the faujdar Jalal Khan, Banda marched on Saharanpur on the way to Jalalabad. [35], Bahadur Shah, upon hearing of the uprising led by Banda Bahadur in Punjab only a year after Guru Gobind Singh's death, left the Deccan for the north. kitnā hé bad-naseeb zafar dafn ke liye [9] Once he had joined them, Bahadur Shah II took ownership for all the actions of the mutineers. Sultana Begum, wife of the great grandson of Bahadur Shah Zafar After her husband's demise, her life has been reduced to a measly pension from which she has to support her 6 children. The same King Jang Bahadur, who had betrayed India, provided her safe passage and refuge in Kathmandu. At the age of 85 he was brought to Yangon as a Royal Captive of the British. "[31], Thinking that Kam Bakhsh might flee to Persia, the emperor ordered his prime minister Zulfiqar Khan Nusrat Jung to agree with Madras Presidency governor Thomas Pitt to pay him 200,000 rupees for Kam Bakhsh's capture. किसकी बनी है आलम-ए-नापायेदार में Sultana Begum, wife of the great grandson of Bahadur Shah Zafar. During his grandfather's reign, Mu'azzam was appointed vizer of Lahore from 1653 to 1659. The story of Bahadur Shah Zafar remains incomplete without the description of his wife Zeenat Mahal. Bahadur Shah Zafar Royal Family Situation in India now. [47], Bahadur was attacked by Muhammad Amin Khan at the river Satluj, escaping to the Garhwal hills. [5], In 1681, he was sent by Aurangzeb to the Deccan to crush a revolt raised by his step-brother Sultan Muhammad Akbar. Q16- _____ was the wife of Bahadur Shah Zafar. He died in exile on 7 November 1862 in … A) 1862. His father, Akbar Shah II, was Muslim while his mother, Lal … In October, his condition deteriorated. [24] In May 1707, Kam Bakhsh sent Ahsan Khan to conquer the states of Golkonda and Hyderabad. The executions took place under a peepul tree in front of the palace, despite Zafar's protests. The Sikhs started moving cautiously towards Delhi and entered the sarkar of Hissar where they started preparation for a military campaign. "[26] His appearance is that of an indigent munshi or teacher of languages". [3], After Raja Jai Singh I defeated Shivaji at Purandar, Mu'azzam was given the charge of Deccan in May 1667 and was assisted by Maharaja Jaswant Singh. [42] The city of Sirhind fell to the Mughals on 7 December; its besieger, general Mohammad Amin Khan Bahadur, gave him a golden key ring commemorating the victory. Upon excavation of the two graves intact, skeletal remains of Bahadur Shah Zafar wrapped in … [54] Unlike the other Mughal emperors, his coins did not use his name in a couplet; poet Danishmand Khan composed two lines for the coins, but they were not approved. [29] He wrote the following Ghazal (Video search)[unreliable source?] On 10 November Shah began his march to Amber (in Rajputana, present day Rajasthan state of India), visiting the tomb of Salim Chishti in Fatehpur Sikri on 21 November. کتنا ہے بدنصیب ظفر دفن کے لئے He succeeded his father, Emperor Akbar Shah II. The aim of the executioners who were not the supporters of Zafar was to implicate him in the killings. The Emperor nominated his eldest son, Mirza Mughal, as the commander in chief of his forces. [27], In one of his verses, Zafar explicitly stated that both Hinduism and Islam shared the same essence. All three sons intended to win the crown, and Kam Bakhsh began minting coins in his name. The ghazis were defeated by the Sikhs. He married Zeenat Mahal in 1840 who gave birth to his favouite son Mir Jawan Bakht. Muazzam was replaced by Shaista Khan as the governor of Deccan. When the news of Aurangzeb's death spread through the city, the city's monarch, King Sayyid Niyaz Khan surrendered the fort to him without a fight. qismet méń qaid likhī tthī fasl-e-bahār méń According to the historian Munis Faruqui, Mu'azzam deliberately failed in his mission. Two hours later Kam Bakhsh's camp was surrounded, and Zulfiqar Khan impatiently attacked him with his "small force". [41] When he learned about Shah's plans, Bahadur unsuccessfully appealed to Ajit Singh and Man Singh for help. The ground floor houses the … [21] According to the Bahadur Shah Nama chronicle, because of this incident the emperor called Amar Singh an "unbeliever". The British took two years to completely suppress the rebel. [26], As a poet, Zafar imbibed the highest subtleties of mystical Sufi teachings. One of Akbar Shah's queens, Mumtaz Begum, pressured him to declare her son, Mirza Jahangir, as his successor. दो आरज़ू में कट गए, दो इन्तज़ार में D) Begum Gazi Khatun . He played an important role in the revolt of 1857 against the British. Two passed in desire, two in waiting. When Mughal workers came to repair a bridge in the village, his followers disinformed them that he was preparing to attack Delhi via Ajmer. With little ammunition left, Bahadur and a "few hundred of his followers fled". But his exile still continues. [37][38], The Sikhs tried to oust the Mughals from the regions of Jalandhar and Amritsar. [55], His full name, including his titles, was "Abul-nasr Sayyid Qutb-ud-din Muhammad Shah Alam Bahadur Shah Badshah". [14], Hakim Ahsanullah Khan, Zafar's most trusted confidant and both his Prime Minister and personal physician, had insisted that Zafar did not involve himself in the rebellion and had surrendered himself to the British. In his book, The Last Mughal, William Dalrymple states that, according to Lahore scholar Imran Khan, the beginning of the verse, umr-e-darāz māńg ke ("I asked for a long life") was not written by Zafar, and does not appear in any of the works published during Zafar's lifetime. kiskī banī hé ālam-e-nā-pāyedār méń The next day, Hodson shot his sons Mirza Mughal and Mirza Khizr Sultan, and grandson Mirza Abu Bakht under his own authority at the Khooni Darwaza, near the Delhi Gate and declared Delhi to be captured. 38. p'hailā ke pāoń soyeń-ge kūńj-e-mazaar méń [8], On 16 May, sepoys and palace servants killed fifty-two Europeans who were prisoners of the palace and who were discovered hiding in the city. Azam and his son, Ali Tabar, were killed in the battle. A) Begum Hazrat Mahal. The Rajputs first expelled the commandants of Jodhpur and Hindaun-Bayana and recovered Amber by a night attack. Bahadur Shah Zafar died in the Rangoon jail in November 1862. In October, his commander Khanzada Nawab Feroz Khan wrote to him that he had "chopped three hundred heads of rebels"; Khan sent them to the emperor, who displayed them mounted on spears. For his burial [41] In the meantime, Shah had reoccupied Sonipat, Kaithal and Panipat en route. [14], In May 1708, the emperor wrote a letter to Kam Bakhsh which he hoped would "be a warning" against proclaiming himself an independent sovereign and began a journey to the Tomb of Aurangzeb to pay his respects to his father. During a war of succession Singh sided with Aurangzeb's older brother Dara Shikoh, who was killed by Aurangzeb. Outside Gujjar herders began levying their own tolls on traffic, and it became increasingly difficult to feed the city. Not even two yards of land were to be had, in the land of his beloved.[32]. He was born on October 24, 1775 and was the son of Akbar shah II. Bahadur Shah Zafar was crowned in Delhi on September 18, 1838. Copper coins from Aurangzeb's reign were re-minted with his name. [9], Around 1694, Aurangzeb rehabilitated Mu'azzam and allowed him "to rebuild his household", rehiring some of his servants who had been dismissed. फैला के पाँव सोएँगे कुंज-ए-मज़ार में 40. B) 1859. Six days later, a small group of Sikhs were defeated at Mewati and Banswal. The days of life are over, evening has fallen Zafar never had any interest in statecraft or had any "imperial ambition". [19], In Amber he announced his intention to march to Jodhpur when Mihrab Khan defeated Ajit Singh at Mairtha, and he reached the town on 21 February 1708. Mirza Jawan Bakht (1841 - 1884) Was The Son Of Emperor Bahadur Shah II, Also Called Zafar, And Zinat Mahal. Bahadur Shah Zafar had four wives and numerous concubines. After the death of his father, he ascended the throne in 1837, during the British rule, when he was little over 60 years of age. Bahadur received soldiers from village ruler Ram Chand for his march against the Mughals, and besieged Fatehabad in April 1711. How unfortunate is Zafar! C) 1858. The last Mughal king, Bahadur Shah, better known as Bahadur Shah Zafar, was born in 1775 at Delhi. [26] He was also a believer of the magical and superstitious side of the Orthodox Sufism. [49], To solve the problem, Bahadur Shah went to Lahore in September 1711 and had discussions with Haji Yar Muhammad, Muhammad Murad and "other well-known men". Shah also sparked an Islamic controversy in the khutba by inserting the declaration of Ali as wali. [40], Bahadur Shah signed peace treaties with Ajit Singh of Jodhpur, and Man Singh of Amber before fighting him. [11], The trial was a consequence of the Sepoy Mutiny and lasted for 41 days, had 19 hearings, 21 witnesses and over a hundred documents in Persian and Urdu, with their English translations, were produced in the court. He was the son of Akbar Shah from his Hindu wife Lalbai. Sultana Begum, 60, married the great-grandson of Bahadur Shah Zafar; After ruling India for 300 years, he was overthrown by Britain in 1857; Descendants of the last Mughal emperor survive on a pension of £60; Their home is a two-room hut in a bleak shantytown in Kolkatta Shah's plans were intercepted by the emperor, who imprisoned him several times. On 2 October, although the army was deployed at the mosque the old khutba (which did not call Ali "wasi") was read. [16] Shah reached Amber on 20 January 1708. Bahadur Shah Zafar ruled over a Mughal Empire that had by the early nineteenth century been reduced to only the city of Delhi and the surrounding territory as far as Palam. [21] Bahadur Shah waged war against the king until his brother Muhammad Kam Bakhsh's insurgency diverted him southward. Fate had decreed imprisonment during the harvest of spring [37] Banda made his capital at Lohgarh, where he established a mint. On 24 February he made his final public appearance,[51] and died during the night of 27–28 February; according to Mughal noble Kamwar Khan, he died of "enlargement of the spleen". Aurangzeb charged Mu'azzam with treason and imprisoned him; his harem was "shipped off to faraway Delhi",[7] and the ladies were also charged with treason. [27], The emperor had a staunch belief in ta'aviz or charms, especially as a palliative for his constant complaint of piles, or to ward off evil spells. Bahadur Shah was born as Mu'azzam on 14 October 1643 in Burhanpur as the third son of the sixth Mughal emperor, Aurangzeb by his wife Nawab Bai.. During the reign of Shah Jahan. During his grandfather's reign, Mu'azzam was appointed vizer of Lahore from 1653 to 1659. Of all his wives, Zeenat Mahal was the closest to him. Bahadur Shah Zafar was the last emperor of the Mughal dynasty. [53], He issued gold, silver and copper coins, although his predecessors' coins were also used to pay government officials and in commerce. [3] The Marathas installed Shah Alam II in the throne in 1772, under the protection of the Maratha general Mahadaji Shinde and maintained suzerainty over Mughal affairs in Delhi. Takht London tak chalegī tegh Hindostān kī. Shah also pressed Rustam Dil Khan and Muhammad Amin Khan to join them. [45], Bahadur was hiding in Alhalab, 7 miles (11 km) from Lahore. काँटे बिछा दिये हैं दिल-ए-लालाज़ार में [26] He was regarded as a Sufi Pir and used to accept murids or pupils. do gaz zamīn bhī na milī kū-e-yār méń, My heart has no repose in this despoiled land He was a nominal Emperor, as the Mughal Empire existed in name only and his authority was limited only to the walled city of Old Delhi (Shahjahanbad). Forces led by Isa Khan and Muhammad Amin Khan followed but failed to capture him. 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