Seismic refraction technique, in especial, has faced during the 30 years an increased application in the study of engineering site selected. 0000005801 00000 n about viewing, downloading, and printing report files can be found here. 0000015902 00000 n Examples of the use of seismic-refraction techniques in a wide variety of hydrologic studies are presented. 0000005778 00000 n Aquifers that can be defined by one or more high seismic-velocity surfaces, such as (1) alluvial or glacial deposits in consolidated rock valleys, (2) limestone or sandstone underlain by metamorphic or igneous rock, or (3) saturated unconsolidated deposits overlain by unsaturated unconsolidated deposits,are ideally suited for applying seismic-refraction methods. Reflection seismology (or seismic reflection) is a method of exploration geophysics that uses the principles of seismology to estimate the properties of the Earth's subsurface from reflected seismic waves.The method requires a controlled seismic source of energy, such as dynamite or Tovex blast, a specialized air gun or a seismic vibrator, commonly known by the trademark name Vibroseis. Application of Shallow Seismic Refraction and 2D Electrical Resistivity Imaging to Site Investigations . Recent advances in equipment, sound sources, and computer interpretation techniques make seismic refraction a highly effective and economical means of obtaining subsurface data in hydrologic studies. browser may not display or print as intended. 0000013953 00000 n �Ry@�Y)�He1`�S65R�ѭ0f6N�Sb �uC(�F�8 ����J�`p5��Y6$�i�OF2a�>���Z�#i�r�4�J��A8�����ya �j.�F#(�����#|�t]��t\��eE�hv��F3��:��ۙ6�b)�U ��:n��h��f�9����:H3Լ�0DƇ���o㆞��8f�) ����4���B�+"���5!��m��BN;K��k����0r����@����f������;0{�6B*H���@d�'�Ծ�6��f6�Ě�@�ڕ'��ܤ�3m��$��]"KĴˉ2���,�Ar��3�D��M�%9�{��n�rݫ2�����h�I���2�R�oE���!�fעIe 3t��J��bR�)Q�aN#��6 #�: #x�\6Ux\�01�˼�4'���t� �5��8��uMl��w��SD9��H�6۷��:���T��DC�bQ�D9�0�0�wŅ'����0�ּ����I�OPh�: x�9�xn��œ_��)4Q��qȱk� ���!F 6). Emmanuel Addai *,Van-Dycke Sarpong Asare, Akwasi Acheampong Aning* * Department of Physics, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. This parameter typically correlates well with rock hardness and density, which in turn tend to correlate with changes in lithology, degree of fracturing, water content, and weathering. (�1%�W�����Κ�̩����(a��G)/�Lޙd �N������:G"�)$�{����T Seismic methods have long been recognized as an effective tool for studying the shallow subsurface for a variety of applications, such as engineering problems, geotechnical evaluations, environmental studies, hydrogeological investigations, seismic risk assessment, archeology, etc. in foundation evaluation in parts of legon-adenta . 76 Figure 4.18 (a) The actual distance of both survey line in one profile. 0000009876 00000 n 1916: Seismic refraction developed to locate artillery guns by measurement of recoil. What is Seismic Refraction? \R�� ��� Q�LZ�� �T �E�X�qA����v�� The ERT technique was applied using four lines over and outside of the landslide scar using the Wenner electrode configuration. Recent advances in equipment, sound sources, and computer interpretation techniques make seismic refraction a highly effective and economical means of obtaining subsurface data in hydrologic studies. Basavanagowda Acharya Institute of Technology, Bangalore, India L.Govindaraju & Chethan K. University Visvesvaraya college of Engineering, Bangalore, India R. Ramesh Babu Central Power Research Institute, Bangalore, India SUMMARY: 0000001146 00000 n Open-File Report (1990) has been applied to first arrival seismic refraction data collected along Line A of the 1986 Lake Superior GLIMPCE experiment, permitting comparison of the inversion image with an independently derived forward model (Trehu et al., 1991; Shay and Trehu, in press). 0000011938 00000 n A lock ( Seismic refraction is a geophysical principle governed by Snell's Law of refraction. Application of seismic refraction methods in groundwater modeling studies in New England F. P. Haeni* ABSTRACT Seismic refraction methods have been extensively used in petroleum, mineral, and engineering investi- gations, and to some extent for hydrologic applications, during the past 30 years. Seismic refraction maps contrasts in seismic velocity – the speed at which seismic energy travels through soil and rock. During inversions, ray tracing and SIRT are applied to the velocity model, until the root mean square (RMS) error on the difference between the observed and calculated travel times is minimized. Seismic Refraction (SR) is a surface geophysics method that utilizes the refraction of seismic waves on geology layers and rock/soil units to characterize subsurface geologic conditions. Figure 4.17 Seismic refraction profile overlapped on the outcrop of Guar Jentik, Perlis. 0000001596 00000 n the documents to your computer and open them with Adobe Reader. Application of Seismic Refraction Tomography in Delineating Subsurface Geology and Weathering Structures in Parts of Osubi Delta State Orji Omafume M*1, Eze Stanley2 1,Department of Petroleum Engineering and Geoscience, Petroleum Training Institute, Effurun, Nigeria. 0000001168 00000 n (c) The seismic refraction profile. The targeted rock lies beneath unconsolidated rocks. 77 Figure 4.19 The overlay of seismic refraction profile on the 0000015879 00000 n The processing routine of the seismic refraction data involved the following steps: Seismogram (Fig. The instruments used include a seismograph and spread cable of geophones. 1 Instituto Geofísico Sismológico Volponi / Facultad de Ciencias Exactas … These methods allow the economical collection of subsurface data, provide the basis for more efficient collection of data by test drilling or aquifer tests, and result in improved hydrologic studies. 1920: Practical seismic reflection methods developed. It was found that the seismic refraction survey produce the results which almost similar to the borehole method. Introduction. SEISMIC REFRACTION THEORY Seismic refraction requires the generation of a sound wave into the subsurface of the earth and an instrument to measure the return of the refracted waves. ����I/ �ҵ��)P� *�. v��y��9 ��2��ʞ�.��9p@�k~��3&Yi=�ۛ��ܠ�+�C�.6�������:� �2�ˉ����@�j�I�ߘh�Η���w���ļ�x'����7=}�mx�ї�m~����0�y�t�P�n~�� �Σ�Lr�I'4��2)�wS�ul`j��WQ�N^F�i�s1��;0U��U�l|p�|�S�j����4B@�CpiO -�Ex���8��G&��Љ��8�1��W�Rʡ�w'\�Sx�˜T In this study, a seismic refraction survey was conducted to map the topography of bedrock in Al-Amrat, North of Sultanate of Oman. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites. Applied seismic methods comprise sending impulses underground and registering the resulting refracted arrivals from subsurface interfaces on a number of receivers positioned on or near the surface. An Introduction to Seismic Refraction Theory and Application 1. Recent advances in equipment, sound sources, and computer interpretation techniques make seismic refraction a highly effective and economical means of obtaining subsurface data in hydrologic studies. 0000015944 00000 n 84-746, Explore recent publications by USGS authors, Browse all of Pubs Warehouse by publication type and year, Descriptions of US Geological Survey Report Series, Application of seismic-refraction techniques to hydrologic studies(1988), Application of seismic-refraction techniques to hydrologic studies. 0000001452 00000 n 0000013976 00000 n Conventional interpretation of seismic refraction data visualizes the subsurface as a layered medium where each layer has a discrete seismic velocity. The 2D seismic P-wave refraction tomography (SRT) and 2D electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) methods were used to characterize the landslides in this area. For more general application of seismic refraction methods, Redpath (1973) and Mooney (1984) provide classic introductions to the seismic refraction technique. Fig. With this assumption and by measuring the travel time of the refracted seismic waves, the thickness and dip angle of each ground layer can be obtained ( Sheriff and Geldart, 1995 ). The seismic refraction method utilizes the refraction of seismic waves by rock or soil layers to characterize the subsurface geologic conditions and geologic structure. The results of these studies indicate that refraction tomography is able to resolve karst features under some conditions. It emphasizes the use of this technique in hydrologic investigations and describes the planning, equipment, field procedures, and intrepretation techniques needed for this type of study. View Academics in Application of Seismic Refraction in Groundwater Exploration on Academia.edu. A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the This technique is termed seismic refraction. Within 10 years, the dominant method of hydrocarbon exploration. application-of-seismic-refraction-tomography-to-karst-cavities 1/1 Downloaded from corporatevault.emerson.edu on January 11, 2021 by guest [MOBI] Application Of Seismic Refraction Tomography To Karst Cavities Getting the books application of seismic refraction tomography to karst cavities now is not type of challenging means. 0000007818 00000 n The seismograph measures the travel times of elastic waves through the subsurface of the earth. Application of Refraction Microtremor (ReMi) for Seismic Site Characterisation G.M. (��E@h�0�ġQ���d8 �0����m��c��$r3ňШ8�i;*��@�qG��p���w (b) The inversion model of 2-D resistivity imaging. More information The former is the more traditional approach, although tomography has become more popular as faster com… 0000003782 00000 n 0000017920 00000 n This geophysical method is based on the measurement of the arrival times of the seismic waves refracted by the interfaces between soil stratifications, characterised by different propagation speeds. (PDF). 7). �D Ѩ�l.�P�k���F3l^i6�DCx4@ Common applications include: Mapping depth to bedrock and bedrock topography. Part or all of this report is presented in Portable Document Format Armando Luis Imhof 1, Manuel Sánchez 2, Carlos Calvo 3 and Adriana Martín 4. For best results viewing and printing PDF documents, it is recommended that you download The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Engineering Manual EM 1110-1-1802 adapted by ASCE (1998) provides a more current review of the method. Application of seismic refraction tomography for tunnel design in Santa Clara Mountain, San Juan, Argentina. Official websites use .gov %PDF-1.2 %���� During the past 30 years, seismic-refraction methods have been used extensively in petroleum, mineral, and engineering investigations and to some extent for hydrologic applications. principles. Burger, 1992). Seismic refraction is commonly limited to mapping bedrock depths and rippabilities at depths less than 100 feet, and is generally applicable only where the seismic velocities of layers increase with depth. ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. 0000011915 00000 n Seismic refraction was the first major geophysical method to be applied in the search for oil bearing structures but its application in oil exploration is reduce over years due to variety of the modern reflection surveys. This includes major projects such as delineating solution cavities in foundation rocks, construction of hydroelectric power … 0ol�� �*UeT庢��d��z�(x���G��y[�@a[KqoD�?%A�p9$ꈠ��I�#�./>6@���rgl��S�jӺ_��e�Gб�M���hF��h%�ap�z0��J��U>~��3%NND���V3SYu3)�l!�0� ����@ LockA locked padlock trailer << /Size 127 /Info 98 0 R /Root 104 0 R /Prev 1451646 /ID[] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 104 0 obj << /Pages 102 0 R /Type /Catalog >> endobj 125 0 obj << /S 149 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 126 0 R >> stream United States. 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Calculating the subsurface velocity profile. 0000000887 00000 n PDF documents opened from your 0000009853 00000 n An official website of the United States government. The seismic refraction technique is a classic geophysical method applicable to a variety of engineering and environmental projects. A number of seismic profiles in the area were acquired, analyzed, and interpreted. One can study subsurface velocity and layer interface structure by analyzing the first arrival times of P-waves (longitudinal or compressional waves) at the surface of the earth. 103 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 105 /H [ 887 281 ] /L 1453836 /E 94325 /N 14 /T 1451657 >> endobj xref 103 24 0000000016 00000 n During the past 30 years, seismic-refraction methods have been used extensively in petroleum, mineral, and engineering investigations, and to some extent for hydrologic applications. The seismic reflection method has been used extensively in mineral exploration and for imaging crustal structures within hardrock environments. Providing elastic properties of the subsurface for engineering design. For three years we have used synthetic and field data to investigate the effectiveness of commercial refraction tomography codes on both simple and complex subsurface velocity structures, with the ultimate goal of determining the suitability of the method for karst problems. 0000003805 00000 n This manual briefly reviews the basics of seismic-refraction theory and principles. There are two basic approaches to seismic refraction data analysis: layer-cake and tomographic inversion. areas, greater accra region . In this paper, an uphole refraction survey was carried out at the location of LISO Field in Niger Delta Nigeria in order to determine/estimate the thickness and velocities of the strata with a view to ascertaining the suitability of these layers for seismic reflection data acquisition and engineering structures. During the past 30 years, seismic-refraction methods have been used extensively in petroleum, mineral, and engineering investigations, and to some extent for hydrologic applications. Download the latest version of Adobe Reader, free of charge. 6) is imported and first arrivals are picked (red dashes in Fig. In this research the seismic reflection method has been used and studied to address problems associated with hardrock settings. 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