When Morgan, his army, and his prisoners crossed on January 17, the water was high from heavy rains and flooding. He talked of his own conflict with the British and of Tarleton’s brutality at the Battle of the Waxhaws. On October 14, 1780, Continental Army commander General George Washington chose Nathanael Greene, a Rhode Island Quaker officer, to be commander of the Southern Department of the rebel Continental forces. 2. Riding to the front, he rallied the militia, crying out, "form, form, my brave fellows! Also referred to as Tories. Although Greene's forces were forced to retire from the field; the British were badly battered with many men killed or wounded. He thought Morgan must be desperate, indeed, to have stopped at such a place. 29341. 6 rebellion - The British term for the American Revolution. Returning to Guilford Courthouse36, he fought Cornwallis' army employing with some success, Morgan's tactics at Cowpens. 3 British regular army - Regular, trained and uniformed soldiers of the British Army, as distinguished from Loyalist (Tory) militia. They came south for a number of reasons, primarily to assist Southern Loyalists5 and help them regain control of colonial governments, and then push north, to crush the rebellion6. 1. Those involved were termed "rebels" by the British. Walk the battlefield and have students look at interpretive signs to identify statements made by or about each commander. Now it was a race for the Dan River33 on the Virginia line, Cornwallis having burned his baggage34 and swiftly pursuing Greene. 19 Battle of Kings Mountain - The Overmountain men and other militia defeated British loyalists at Kings Mountain in upstate South Carolina on October 7, 1780. Morrill, Dan L. Southern Campaigns of the American Revolution, Baltimore, Maryland; The Nautical and Aviation Publishing Company of America, N.D. Tarleton, Banastre, A History of hte Campaigns of 1780 and 1781 in the Southern Provinces of North America. As other companies along the line followed suite, Morgan rode up to ask Howard if he were beaten. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1997. Battle of Cowpens Quick Facts The Continental Army forces in this battle were led by Brigadier General Daniel Morgan. He was paroled to England, where he later was promoted to general and became a member of Parliament. Tarleton at the time was 26 years old. British General Cornwallis crossed the Broad in pursuit. Sumter also resumed fighting under similar circumstances. Sumpter Chosen Leader . POST-SITE ACTIVITIES Review the Background Information and Procedure sections. Tarleton's force included: 1. From then on, Patriot forces talked of revenge against Tarleton. Conquering these population centers, however, gave the British a false sense of victory they didn't count on so much opposition in the backcountry10. They estimated that many of the population would rally to the Crown. Some of the militia indeed got off two volleys as the British neared, but, as they retreated and reached supposed safety behind the Continental line, Tarleton sent his feared Dragoons after them. Here, with the flood-swollen Broad River14 six miles to his back, Morgan decided to make a stand at the Cowpens, a well-known crossroads and frontier pasturing ground. In the American colonies, he, like Morgan, was known for his courage and daring and rose in rank to Lieutenant Colonel. Knowing Cornwallis would come after him, Morgan saw to it that the dead were buried - the legend says in wolf pits -- and headed north with his army. The Battle of Cowpens was part of the campaign in the Carolinas (North and South). First, out front and hiding behind trees were selected sharpshooters. This victory encouraged France to enter the war to assist the Americans. In 1780 the Carolinas had been the scene of a long string of disasters for the Continental Army, the worst being the capture of one American army under Gen. Benjamin Lincoln in May 1780, at the Siege of Charleston. It was his goal to have the first two lines slow the British before withdrawing and forcing Tarleton's weakened men to attack uphill against the Continentals. For Morgan’s part, “His strategy for using the militia in the battle at Cowpens would influence Greene heavily at the Battle of Guilford Courthouse in a few short weeks. With me it is liberty or death.” An election was … 32 Salisbury - An early town in the North Carolina piedmont known for its Confederate prison and National Cemetery, today, but lesser known for its Revolutionary War prison, most likely established in the latter years of the war. Proud of his bearing, he asked to be sent to America. 33 Dan River - A river separating North Carolina and Virginia. On October 18, 1781, the British army surrendered at Yorktown. In one of the most dramatic moments of the battle, William Washington, racing ahead of his cavalry, dueled hand-to-hand with Tarleton and two of his officers. Have students pretend to be newspaper reporters. Washington's life was saved only when his young bugler29 fired his pistol at an Englishman with raised saber. The surprised British Dragoons, already scattered and sensing a rout, were overwhelmed, and according to historian Babits, lost eighteen men in the clash. The 7th Royal FusiliersRegiment (177) 5. During this period of the war, Pickens joined Francis Marion and Thomas Sumter as the most well-known partisan leaders in the Carolinas. Finally, Tarleton, himself, saw the futility of continued battle, and with a handful of his men, fled from whence he came, down the Green River Road. The number of American soldiers involved in the battle is in dispute. Soon after Morgan retired from his duty because of ill health- rheumatism, and recurring bouts of malarial fever. Burning the baggage (and wagons) allowed an army to travel faster. Read selections to your class on Daniel Morgan and Banastre Tarleton from sources such as The Green Dragoon (Bass), Daniel Morgan – Revolutionary Rifleman (Higgenbotham), and A History of the Campaigns of 1780 and 1781 in the Southern Provinces of North America (Tarleton). 29 bugler - William Washington's bugler was very likely African-American. He was second cousin, first-removed to George Washington. At Cowpens, Tarleton initially kept his Highlanders in reserve, but, as the advance faltered, he ordered them into action against the American right. The light infantry company of the 16th Regiment (42) 6. He pushed his army, allowing them little time for food and rest. The Cowpens battlefield is well worth a visit, and anyone who goes there should get this book in advance to take with them. If it could be called a victory, it was a costly one: Five hundred British lay dead or wounded. 13 Thicketty Creek - An upstate South Carolina creek, a tributary of the Broad River. Daniel Morgan and his army camped along Thicketty before their hurried departure for the Cowpens. Afterwards, he reported to General Greene, and retired to his home in Winchester, Virginia. Also, the search for food for animals or humans. A famous painting by Ranney dipicts him so. Stragglers from the battle were overtaken, but Tarleton escaped to tell the awful news to Cornwallis. Other articles where Banastre Tarleton is discussed: Battle of Cowpens: Banastre Tarleton, who had intended to seize the strategic crossroads at Ninety Six, South Carolina. Others believe it is an English corruption of the original and described not only the Native Americans of the region but also the waxy-looking haw and "hawfields", (shrubs, either Black Haw (vibernum prunifolium) or hawthorns (crataegus linnaeus) prominent in the region. Against military custom, Greene, just two weeks into his command, split his army, sending General Daniel Morgan southwest of the Catawba River to cut supply lines and hamper British operations in the backcountry, and, in doing so "spirit up the people". It was the name of Native Americans of the region, derived, some historians, believe, from native language. Tarleton and his remaining forces galloped away to Cornwallis' camp. While the Americans had Daniel Morgan as a leader. Reported to his senior officer after the Battle of Cowpens Suffered from arthritis, retired to Winchester, Virginia, after the Battle of Cowpens Many, in eastern South Carolina, were known for their native cane- brakes. Paroled to England after the Battle of Yorktown Instead the battle set in motion a series of events leading to the end of the war. Have students organize their knowledge by completing a Venn Diagram. His uniform was green The 71st (Fraser's Hi… Although Morgan claimed in his official report to have had only a few over 800 men at Cowpens, historian Lawrence Babits, in his detailed study of the Battle, estimates the real numbers as: 1. 22 "Benny" - Daniel Morgan's derisive name for Banastre Tarleton. What were the leadership styles of Daniel Morgan and Banastre Tarleton at the Battle of Cowpens, and how did it impact the Revolutionary War? 23 dragoon - A mounted infantryman, who often rode his horse into battle and dismounted to fight. Morgan, in response, cheering his men on, said to give them the Indian halloo back. Buchanan, John. The third chapter focuses on the tactical aspects of the battle on that cold morning in January 178 1 I The fourth chapter I have included as a guide for the staff ride. 17 forage - Food for animals or humans. 1 Battle of Cowpens - At the Cowpens, a frontier pastureland, on January 17, 1781, Daniel Morgan led his army of tough Continentals and backwoods militia to a brilliant victory over Banastre Tarleton's battle-hardened force of British regulars. It became known as the turning point of the war in the South, part of a chain of events leading to Patriot victory at Yorktown2 The Cowpens victory was won over a crack British regular army3 and brought together strong armies and leaders who made their mark on history. The prisoners were taken via Salisbury32 on to Winchester, Virginia. He attended Oxford University where he was known for his athletic ability. Known as the “Old Wagoner” 12 Pacolet River - An upstate South Carolina river with its headwaters in North Carolina flowing through present-day Spartanburg and Cherokee Counties before it empties into the Broad. The Battle of Cowpens was an engagement during the American Revolutionary War fought on January 17, 1781, between American Colonial forces under Brigadier General Daniel Morgan and British forces under Lieutenant Colonel Sir Banastre Tarleton, as part of the campaign in the Carolinas (North and South).The battle was a turning point in the American reconquest of South Carolina from the British. Known as a frontiersman Daniel Morgan, the Patriot General at the Battle of Cowpens, and Lieutenant Colonel Banastre Tarleton, the British leader, came from different backgrounds and chose to lead in their own way. His words were especially effective with the militia the "Old Waggoner"20 of French and Indian War days and the hero of Saratoga21, spoke their language. Battle of Cowpens - Change and Leadership 1. Rode a horse during the battle Now Tarleton's 71st Highlanders27, held in reserve, entered the charge toward the Continental line, the wild wail of bagpipes adding to the noise and confusion. Cornwallis, distressed by the news from Cowpens, and wondering aloud how such an inferior force could defeat Tarleton's crack troops, indeed came after him. 20 "Old Waggoner" - Affectionate name given to General Morgan who began his military career as a wagon driver in the French and Indian War. Soon, he intersected with and traveled west on the Green River Road. The British Army under General Charles Cornwallis had claimed a number of recent victories in the Carolinas. Cowpens National Battlefield Yet he was confident of victory: he reasoned he had Morgan hemmed in by the Broad, and the undulating park-like terrain was ideal for his dragoons23. - Learn Our History Today - On January 17, 1781, during the Americ... an Revolution, the Battle of Cowpens, a major turning point of the conflict, especially in the South, was fought in northwest South Carolina. Battle of Cowpens, South Carolina. The Waxhaw settlement, just off the Great Wagon Road, today covers parts of both Carolinas in an area southeast of Charlotte. Morgan moved among the campfires and offered encouragement; his speeches to militia and Continentals alike were command performances. However, he didn't know Morgan had a brilliant plan. Along with the British defeat at the Battle of Kings Mountain, Cowpens was a serious blow to Cornwallis who might have defeated much of the remaining resistance in South Carolina had Tarleton won at Cowpens. Courageous and mature, he fought against the British at Quebec and at Saratoga, New York. Today, referred to as the Upcountry or Upstate. These events set the stage for the Battle of Cowpens. 7 Savannah - The British captured this Georgia coastal town on December 29, 1778. He wasted his inheritance, however; with what money he had left, he purchased a commission in the British army. Banastre Tarleton, on the other hand, was raised in relative affluence in Liverpool, England, where his father was mayor. Such victories gave the British confidence they would soon control the entire South, that Loyalists would flock to their cause. Tarleton pressed the attack head on, his line extending across the meadow, his artillery in the middle, and fifty Dragoons on each side. Discuss each leader’s method of fighting. On January 12, 1781, Tarleton's scouts located Morgan's army at Grindal Shoals on the Pacolet River12 in South Carolina's backcountry and thus began an aggressive pursuit. It was a turning point in the reconquest of South Carolina from the British. 30 Island Ford - A normally low-water crossing point on the Broad River, reached by Island Ford Road. As Tarleton grew closer, Morgan retreated north to Burr's Mill on Thicketty Creek.13 On January 16, with Tarleton reported to have crossed the Pacolet and much closer than expected, Morgan and his army made a hasty retreat, so quickly as to leave their breakfast behind. British losses were staggering: 110 dead, over 200 wounded and 500 captured. DANIEL MORGAN AND THE BATTLE OF COWPENS Turning the Tide in the American Revolution…and Lessons for Modern OrganizationsIn 1781 American General Daniel Morgan defeated a superior British forceat the Battle of Cowpens … There was forage17 at the Cowpens for horses, and evidence of free-ranging cattle for food. General Charles Lord Cornwallis had dispatched Ferguson to North Carolina in early September. Thought unreliable by some Continental officers, they proved themselves at the Battles of Kings Mountain and Cowpens. Perhaps the army was already ruined, and Greene's strategy of attrition was working. At the Waxhaws, a Scots-Irish settlement in South Carolina in present-day Lancaster County, he gained a reputation as a butcher when he was said to have killed Continental soldiers as they were trying to surrender. Tarleton was only twenty-six, but he was an able commander, both feared and hated - hated especially for his victory at the Waxhaws.11 There, Tarleton was said to have continued the fight against remnants of the Continental Army trying to surrender. In order to provide the environment for the Battle of the Cowpens, chapter two discusses operational issues and narrates the campaign. 31 Gilbert Town - Presently, Rutherfordton, North Carolina. 14 Broad River - A river beginning in the mountains of North Carolina flowing southeast and joining with the Saluda River at present-day Columbia to form the Congaree River. 11 Waxhaws - On May 29, a1780, Tarleton's Legion overtook and defeated Colonel Abraham Buford and his Third Virginia Continentals as they returned through the Waxhaws area toward North Carolina after the fall of Charleston. 8A Camden - Fought on August 16, 1780, near Camden, South Carolina, the Battle of Camden was a disastrous defeat for the Patriots. The countryside was devastated, and raids and reprisals were the order of the day. By the time he was through, one soldier observed that the army was "in good spirits and very willing to fight". Daniel Morgan grew up on the Virginia frontier and lived his life as a frontiersman. Reports of the results made Banastre Tarleton a national hero in Britain. The Colonial forces were commanded by Brigadier-General Daniel Morgan. The Bri… As the militia dodged behind trees and parried saber slashes with their rifles, William Washington's26 Patriot cavalry thundered onto the field of battle, seemingly, out of nowhere. Apparently the bugler didn't file a pension, and Washington didn't leave behind written papers of his own role or of anyone else's role in the Revolution. 1 Battle of Cowpens - At the Cowpens, a frontier pastureland, on January 17, 1781, Daniel Morgan led his army of tough Continentals and backwoods militia to a brilliant victory over Banastre Tarleton's battle-hardened force of British regulars. Tarleton and some of his army fought valiantly on; others refused his orders and fled the field. At daybreak, Tarleton rushed his troops into battle without rest and without waiting for possible reinforcements. When it appeared all was lost, he and some 50 of his soldiers escaped down the Green River Road, back to Cornwallis’ camp on the north side of the Broad River. Washington, D.C.: Division of Publications: National Park Service, United States Department of the Interior, 1988. As they fled the field, infantry on both sides fired volley after volley. Cousin of Daniel Boone A troop of the 17th Light Dragoons(50), 3. The Battle of Cowpens1, January 17, 1781, took place in the latter part of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution and of the Revolution itself. In reality, though, Morgan had no choice - to cross the flood-swollen Broad risked having his army cut down by the feared and fast-traveling Tarleton. How does each statement relate to what you already know about the leadership style of each commander? The British advanced in a trot, with beating drums, the shrill sounds of fifes, and shouts of halloo. 1. As Howard pointed to the unbroken ranks and the orderly retreat and assured him they were not, Morgan spurred his horse on and ordered the retreating units to face about, and then, on order, fire in unison. 71st Highlanders fought at Charleston, Camden, and Cowpens, among other battles. Tarleton, however, generally commanded less respect from his soldiers than Morgan did. When he learned Morgan was operating in the backcountry, he began a rapid pursuit. Tarleton was one of around 160 British troops to escape. Have some write about the Battle of Cowpens emphasizing the actions of Daniel Morgan. He spoke emotionally of past battles, talked of the battle plan, and lashed out against the British. (Known also today as Buford's massacre) There is some contention over the origin of the name Waxhaws. Located in present-day South Carolina north of Spartanburg. 34 baggage - Military supplies such as tents, tools, and rations carried in wagons. With the Dragoons in retreat, and their initial part completed, the sharpshooters retreated 150 yards or more back to join the second line, the militia commanded by Andrew Pickens. Morgan’s tactics are studied today at the United States Military Academy at West Point. Tarleton, fretting about heavy rains and flooded rivers, gained ground as his army proceeded toward the flood-swollen Pacolet. 25 John Eager Howard - Native Marylander and Revolutionary War officer who distinguished himself at the Battle of Cowpens. When the news of the battle reached London, a member of the House of Commons said, "Another such victory would ruin the British army". The armies of Daniel Morgan and Banastre Tarleton crossed the flood-swollen Pacolet as they journeyed toward the Cowpens. Tarleton's army, after exhaustive marching, reached the field malnourished and heavily fatigued. 35 Catawba River - River originating in the mountains of North Carolina, flowing eastward, before turning south into South Carolina, where is known as the Wateree, and, further east, the Santee. General Daniel Mogran Pioneer, soldier, congressman, and American hero, Daniel Morgan Brigadier General Daniel Morgan commanded all American troops at the Battle of Cowpens. 9 Southern Continental Army - Those regular, trained, and uniformed soldiers of the American army stationed in the South, as distinguished from local militia in each colony. The British Legion: 250 cavalry and 200 infantry, 2. The Battle of Cowpens was fought on January 17, 1781. Chapel Hill: the University of North Carolina Press, 1998. Morgan lost only 12 killed and 60 wounded, a count he received from those reporting directly to him. Fleming, Thomas J. Downright Fighting: The Story of Cowpens - The Official National Park Handbook. Now it was Greene and his army on the move north. Many knew the geography some were Overmountain men who had camped at the Cowpens on their journey to the Battle of Kings Mountain.19 Camp was made in a swale between two small hills, and through the night Andrew Pickens' militia drifted into camp. 36 Battle of Guilford Courthouse - On March 15, 1781, a British army under Cornwallis attacked Nathanael Greene's patriot forces at Guilford Courthouse, North Carolina (part of present-day Greensboro). It was as if Morgan knew he would make a frontal assault - it was his style of fighting. Fergusons task was to recruit fighting men for the Loyalist militia and to protect Cornwalliss left flank as the British moved through the South. A battery of the Royal Artillery (24) with two 3-pounder cannons 4. Gaffney, SC 5 Southern Loyalists - Those of the southern colonial population remaining loyal to the Crown. Son of the mayor of Liverpool In 1779-80, British redcoats indeed came South en masse, capturing first, Savannah7 and then Charleston8 and Camden 8A in South Carolina, in the process, defeating and capturing much of the Southern Continental Army9. How did their backgrounds contribute to that method? Morgan employed three progressively stronger defensive lines: a front line of skirmishers deployed behind trees, followed by Southern militia troops, and, finally, the regular Continental Army troops supported by Col.… Greene's task was not an easy one. Casting an imposing shadow, General Daniel Morgan strode with confidence and determination beside the rows of blazing campfires at Cowpens — a cow pasture, near present-day Spartanburg, South Carolina. He saw action at the Battle of Cowpens, Siege of Augusta, Siege of Ninety-Six, and the Battle of Eutaw Springs. Tarleton attacked immediately; however, the American defence-in-depth absorbed the impact of the British attack. As a young man, he was a wagon-driver in the French and Indian War. Today, he is probably remembered more in the United States than in Great Britain. From his headquarters at Charlotte, North Carolina, the new American commander in the South, Gen. Nathanael Greene, had divided his army and sent a force of 1,000 men under Gen. Daniel Morgan to the southwest to intercept Cornwallis’s advance. He had questioned those familiar with Tarleton’s tactics and expected a frontal assault. He was subsequently elected governor of Maryland (1788-91), and at one time owned much of the land that was to become Baltimore. His surname was possibly Ball, Collins, or Collin, but an exact name hasn't been verified. The victory was a major setback for American forces in the South. But, as one observed, Morgan hardly slept a wink that night. 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