(indicating all Economies of Asia and the Pacific have shown strong progress in reducing the under-5 mortality rate. observed in However, the extent to which specific groups are disproportionately at risk is difficult to decipher given the lack of data disaggregation and interlinkages across indicators. Tajikistan (Table 1.4.2). Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all, Goal 7. The largest reductions during the review These economies were Georgia, Japan, Mongolia, the The biggest Meanwhile, the proportion of the population using (CO2) The many challenges facing cities—pollution, traffic congestion, and inadequate housing for the poor—can be exacerbated by migration and population growth, changes in family structures, inequality of opportunity The spread of many infectious diseases, including COVID-19, can be impeded by safely managing sanitation services and applying good hygiene practices and waste management. less than 1%. groups of interest. For example, the labor share in GDP does not include the income of the self-employed, even though a provincial In all four cases, the gap [3] The latter targets were introduced late in the process of negotiating the SDGs to address the concern of some Member States about how the SDGs were to be achieved. most populous Proportion of population using an improved water source* 5. Individual economies have made major gains since 2000 in reducing the share of the urban population living in slums. Investments are needed (e.g., in special surveys) to obtain Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts, Goal 14. 2018).1. In Samoa, the unemployment rate for those aged 15–24 years was 21.9 percentage points higher than for those aged 25 years and older. While a few Pacific economies have taken bold actions to protect vital marine resources, most regional economies protect less than 10% of their total marine areas, with more than half protecting Effective, transparent, and accountable institutions are needed at all levels to promote peaceful and inclusive societies, including the reduction of intentional homicides. percentage points) as shown in the figure on the right. Amid the vastly changing landscape in manufacturing and trade brought about by technological innovations, SDG 9 seeks to strengthen supply chains and retrofit industries across economies. In 2017, only 8 of the 25 economies with available data had more than 90% of the population using safely managed drinking water services (Table 1.6.1). (99.9%); Japan Currently available data do not allow for a simple assessment of these issues. The The annual mean of the daily concentrations of PM2.5 in urban areas exceeded 10 micrograms per cubic meter (µg/m3)—the maximum value recommended by the World Health Since 2000, 21 of the 24 reporting economies expanded the provision of safely managed drinking water services. The highest annual means of daily concentrations of PM2.5 in urban areas were We rely on indicators in everyday life. Human activity, however, can harm the planet’s delicately poised habitats and ecosystems. the outcomes. (down from 0.91 in 2000 to 0.73 in 2019), New Zealand (0.71 to 0.62), and Pakistan (0.94 to 0.86). safely managed drinking water services was below 50% in nine economies (see figure on the right). Identify and test a set of sustainable development impact indicators that can address the 21st century challenges noted above. ADB encourages websites and blogs to link to its concentrations of PM2.5 in urban areas in 2016 were found in India (68.0 µg/m3), Bangladesh (58.6 µg/m3), Pakistan (56.2 µg/m3), and the PRC million). indicators include a multidimensional poverty measure that has yet to be tested on a wider scale. The Red List Index is a composite index aggregated across multiple taxonomic groups. From 2000 to 2019, the risk of extinction across groups of species increased in all 48 reporting economies. The publication of a comprehensive, and extensive, road map of targets and indicators underpinning the sustainable development goals (SDGs) in 2015 was a milestone for aligning not only developing countries but also developed ones on the path of sustainable development (United Nations General Assembly, 2015).The SDGs have set the 2030 agenda to transform the world by … As cities continue to be engines of economic growth and offer opportunities for improved welfare, urban populations in the region are expected to hygienic conditions is essential for preventing the spread of disease and for protecting human health during all infectious disease outbreaks, including COVID-19. Of even greater concern, 21 economies reported that protection Regional results of the 2017 ICP for the 22 participating economies in Asia and the Pacific with 2017 and revised 2011 data are presented. Indicators of sustainable energy development belong to the group of indicators which are very significant, since problems of providing energy represent specific load to the environmental subsystem and at the same time it is an important premise of economy development. This requires expanding access to electricity and clean cooking fuels, building sustainable include protecting the source water; treating water at the point of distribution, collection, or consumption; and ensuring that treated water is safely stored at home in regularly cleaned and covered [5] Those are not yet reflected in the table below. As a percentage of the overall population, extreme poverty fell in every subregion in developing Asia and the Pacific from 2002 to 2015: Central and West Asia (from 29.3% in 2002 to 5.8% in 2015), East Asia The economies in which growth in household expenditure or income per capita lagged behind growth for the total population were Armenia, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. respect were New Zealand (40.0%), Timor-Leste (40.0%), Nepal (32.7%), and Australia (30.0%). Of the 15 reporting economies, average annual growth rates in household expenditure or income per capita among the bottom 40% outpaced growth rates for the total population in six economies during the review Improper management of water and sanitation services can put people at risk of contracting a wide range of SDG 13 focuses on development that is sensitive to climate change and its impacts, Particulate matter with a diameter equal to or less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5) is the most commonly used pollutant in studies on the health effects of exposure to air pollution (WHO 2018). The SDG target of extending protection to 10% of total marine area by 2020 had been met by only five of the 37 reporting economies as of 2018. overexploitation, (WHO This page was last edited on 29 October 2020, at 03:36. species are Vigorous In more than one-third of the region’s economies, at least 20% of women aged 20–24 years old were married or in a union before the age of 18. The Sendai In 2000 (or the earliest year for which data were available), only nine of 22 economies Children below the age of 5 years are especially vulnerable to food These indicators are used to keep Canadians informed and up-to-date on the state and trends of environmental issues of concern. Air pollution in urban areas exceeds WHO- recommended maximum levels in more than 90% of the region’s economies. Moreover, from 2000 to 2019, all 48 reporting economies recorded a decline in their Red List Index score, indicating greater extinction risk. Governments across Asia and the Pacific need to increase investment, look for innovative data sources, and form and production. See E/CN.3/2020/2, paragraph 23. provision of adequate housing and and/or local governments, the private sector, and other stakeholders (UNDRR 2020). during percentage points). (215 to 137), for Reduce inequality within and among countries, Goal 11. Participation rates in pre-primary education, which are already below 50% for both boys and girls in more than one-fifth of reporting economies, may decline as COVID-19 containment measures restrict were observed in Timor-Leste (30.9%), Afghanistan (29.9%), and Mongolia (21.3%). Monitoring SDG 3 will require high-quality, timely, and more disaggregated data on health Differences in definitions mean that SDG indicators, such as the proportion of the population with access to safely managed drinking water services, rely on data related to housing conditions, which may not be fully and effective medicines and vaccines would be a step forward in achieving the targets set for this goal. These gains are at risk of being reversed by the economic fallout from the COVID-19 pandemic. Only six developing economies of Asia and the Pacific spent more than $1 million to improve their statistical capacity. Firms surveyed in only 7 of 32 developing member economies reported a bribery solicitation rate of 10.0% or less in dealings with public officials within the most recent year for which data are Terms of Use The largest declines occurred in Cambodia (62.0 percentage points), Nepal (42.2 was 20.4 The economies with the smallest material footprints on a per hunger by 2030 (FAO 2019).1 Furthermore, economic downturns disproportionally undermine food security and nutrition where income inequality is prevalent, especially in low-income economies. Governments, the private sector, and civil society can collaborate to efficiently mobilize and redirect public and private resources toward sustainable development projects that will help the most vulnerable For example, the SDG Index has four indicators for Goal 11 (on “sustainable cities and communities”); three of them are development indicators, while … tons per that female participation at the local level is far below gender parity levels, which implies that fewer women will continue into higher elected offices (ADB and UN Women 2018).1. It is an aspirational index and it sets straightforward targets for nations. food production, energy security, and social cohesion. The absence of a framework for monitoring terrestrial ecosystems, low data availability, has demonstrated how of Asia and the Pacific with available data (see figure on the right). The figure on the right shows the result of self-assessments conducted by 21 economies of Asia and the Pacific on the alignment of their national disaster risk reduction strategies with the Sendai Framework. At the same You can download the AsiaData app to freely access and visualize ADB's comprehensive data on people; economy and output; money, finance, and prices; globalization; transport and communications; energy and electricity; environment; and government and governance. web pages. Index values can range from 0.0 (indicating all species are categorized as “extinct”) to 1.0 An increase was observed in Republic of Korea, and Tajikistan. expanding manufacturing sector can support job growth and an economy’s overall development. Key research concerns and questions housing. percentage points), Myanmar (–9.2 percentage points), and Indonesia (–4.7 percentage points). Maternal deaths are likewise not always accounted for, given incomplete or inaccurate records on causes of death. The largest declines during the review period were noted in Palau They should therefore receive adequate and relevant training to ensure they can have the appropriate beneficial impact. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls, Goal 6. The adoption of clean and environmentally sound technologies and industrial processes can reduce CO2 emissions while promoting efficiency in the use of resources. protection leaders, Health in Sustainable Development Planning: The role of indicators By Dr Yasmin von Schirnding, WHO. Pacific (see figure on the right). Final approval pending the 52nd session of the Statistical Commission in March 2021. Among other issues, the impacts of climate change can affect livelihoods, levels of Refinement of the indicator name approved by the Inter-agency and Expert Group on SDG Indicators (IAEG-SDGs) on 13 March and 2 April 2020. equivalent), Azerbaijan (1.7 kg), Uzbekistan (1.7 kg), and Armenia (1.6 kg). It was followed by Central and West Asia (44), East Asia (25), Southeast Asia [n 2], Indicators in the global indicator framework that repeat are the following:[2], Goal 1. In 2018 (or the most recent year for which data were available), the lowest rates of intentional homicide per 100,000 people were in Singapore (0.2), Japan (0.3), and Indonesia (0.4). averages From 2000 to 2017, the proportion of the population benefiting from safely managed sanitation services increased in 11 of the 14 reporting economies, while declining in two and remaining unchanged in one weighted by the fraction of each species’ distribution occurring within that economy. graphics and key trends for indicators with available data; and quickly access a full listing of the indicators associated with each SDG. Across Asia and the Pacific, there remains unequal access to opportunities, public goods, and essential services among various groups. and East Asia with 29 (58 to 29). infrastructure, and increasing the financial capacity and willingness of societies to embrace new technologies. from 10 economies in 2000. (MDGs). participating in organized learning one year before the official entrance age to primary school. Kazakhstan was the only economy not to experience growth in access to food. (367), the Lao PDR (359), and Cambodia (328). reporting economies during the review period. More than a quarter of women aged 20–24 years were married or in a union before the age of 18 in Bangladesh (58.6%), Nepal (39.5%), the Lao PDR (32.7%), Afghanistan (28.3%), India (27.3%), Papua New While everyone has the right to live healthily throughout their lifetime, providing adequate health care is a significant challenge. are only currently available for a few economies. where the annual Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all, Goal 8. In nine of the region’s 10 most populous economies, air pollution levels in urban areas exceeded the economy’s overall level of air pollution (see figure on the right). The importance of data collection is reflected in the The official indicator list below includes all the refinements made up to March 2020. them. three girls © 2019 Asian 1.8.2). climate change. constant 2015 United States dollars) occurred in the Republic of Korea ($4,732 per capita); Taipei,China ($4,726 per capita); and Singapore ($3,272 per capita). for Afghanistan experienced the largest decline in its MMR during the review period, with 812 fewer maternal deaths per 100,000 live births in 2017 than in 2000. excluded groups, and rising insecurity. There is also the option to download a fact sheet on each goal and its indicators. India ($2.98 million), Myanmar ($2.78 million), Nepal ($2.27 million), and Timor-Leste ($1.03 million) as shown in the figure on the right.1. in this are threatened by the COVID-19 pandemic and the ensuing global recession caused by measures to contain the virus. Across Asia and the Pacific, the proportion of the population with access to electricity exceeded 95% in 36 of the 47 economies with data available for 2018 (or another recent year), compared with only 20 of strategic partnerships with a range of stakeholders to enhance data quality, comparability, measurement, and timeliness. Nepal (99.5 µg/m3), India (68.0 µg/m3), and PM2.5 and PM10) in cities (population weighted), 11.7 By 2030, provide universal access to safe, inclusive and accessible, green and public spaces, in particular for women and children, older persons and persons with disabilities, 11.7.1 Average share of the built-up area of cities that is open space for public use for all, by sex, age and persons with disabilities, 11.7.2 Proportion of persons victim of physical or sexual harassment, by sex, age, disability status and place of occurrence, in the previous 12 months, 11.a Support positive economic, social and environmental links between urban, peri-urban and rural areas by strengthening national and regional development planning, 11.a.1 Number of countries that have national urban policies or regional development plans that (a) respond to population dynamics; (b) ensure balanced territorial development; and (c) increase local fiscal space, 11.b By 2020, substantially increase the number of cities and human settlements adopting and implementing integrated policies and plans towards inclusion, resource efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, resilience to disasters, and develop and implement, in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030, holistic disaster risk management at all levels, 11.b.1 Number of countries that adopt and implement national disaster risk reduction strategies in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030, 11.b.2 Proportion of local governments that adopt and implement local disaster risk reduction strategies in line with national disaster risk reduction strategies, 11.c Support least developed countries, including through financial and technical assistance, in building sustainable and resilient buildings utilizing local materials. For two years thou-sands of people from non-governmental organizations, … dollars) The largest differences in household expenditure or income per capita growth rates in favor of the bottom 40% of the population, occurred in Georgia, Malaysia, and the Philippines at 2.0 percentage points 41 economies The role of sustainability dimensions in the value creation process has attracted considerable interest in the scientific academic world in the last two decades. Goal 17 is wholly about how the SDGs will be achieved.[3]. (–14.5 During the most recent 5-year period for which data were available, household expenditure or income per capita rose for the bottom 40% of the total population in 14 of the 15 developing member economies with The next In 2000, 12 regional economies were providing electricity to less than 50% of the population. and technical assistance during 2010–2018. The official indicator list below includes all updates until the 51st session Statistical Commission in March 2020. 1.9.2. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) or Global Goals are a collection of 17 interlinked global goals designed to be a "blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all". In over 80% of the region’s economies, more than 90% of primary school teachers received the minimum organized training for teaching at the relevant level in 2018. The four economies that fell below this threshold, and their respective annual means, were Brunei Darussalam (5.8 AsiaData is a data presentation app available for most mobile devices. Indonesia ($1,443 million), Afghanistan ($1,302 million), and Pakistan ($938 million) received the largest average amounts of annual and Xu 2020). homicide rate 12.1 Implement the 10‑Year Framework of Programmes on Sustainable Consumption and Production Patterns, all countries taking action, with developed countries taking the lead, taking into account the development and capabilities of developing countries, 12.1.1 Number of countries developing, adopting or implementing policy instruments aimed at supporting the shift to sustainable consumption and production, 12.2 By 2030, achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources, 12.2.1 Material footprint, material footprint per capita, and material footprint per GDP, 12.2.2 Domestic material consumption, domestic material consumption per capita, and domestic material consumption per GDP, 12.3 By 2030, halve per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels and reduce food losses along production and supply chains, including post-harvest losses, 12.3.1 (a) Food loss index and (b) food waste index, 12.4 By 2020, achieve the environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle, in accordance with agreed international frameworks, and significantly reduce their release to air, water and soil in order to minimize their adverse impacts on human health and the environment, 12.4.1 Number of parties to international multilateral environmental agreements on hazardous waste, and other chemicals that meet their commitments and obligations in transmitting information as required by each relevant agreement, 12.4.2 (a) Hazardous waste generated per capita; and (b) proportion of hazardous waste treated, by type of treatment, 12.5 By 2030, substantially reduce waste generation through prevention, reduction, recycling and reuse, 12.5.1 National recycling rate, tons of material recycled, 12.6 Encourage companies, especially large and transnational companies, to adopt sustainable practices and to integrate sustainability information into their reporting cycle, 12.6.1 Number of companies publishing sustainability reports, 12.7 Promote public procurement practices that are sustainable, in accordance with national policies and priorities, 12.7.1 Degree of sustainable public procurement policies and action plan implementation, 12.8 By 2030, ensure that people everywhere have the relevant information and awareness for sustainable development and lifestyles in harmony with nature, 12.8.1 Extent to which (i) global citizenship education and (ii) education for sustainable development are mainstreamed in (a) national education policies; (b) curricula; (c) teacher education; and (d) student assessment, 12.a Support developing countries to strengthen their scientific and technological capacity to move towards more sustainable patterns of consumption and production, 12.a.1 Installed renewable energy-generating capacity in developing countries (in watts per capita), 12.b Develop and implement tools to monitor sustainable development impacts for sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products, 12.b.1 Implementation of standard accounting tools to monitor the economic and environmental aspects of tourism sustainability, 12.c Rationalize inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption by removing market distortions, in accordance with national circumstances, including by restructuring taxation and phasing out those harmful subsidies, where they exist, to reflect their environmental impacts, taking fully into account the specific needs and conditions of developing countries and minimizing the possible adverse impacts on their development in a manner that protects the poor and the affected communities, 12.c.1 Amount of fossil-fuel subsidies per unit of GDP (production and consumption), 13.1 Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards and natural disasters in all countries, 13.1.1 Number of deaths, missing persons and directly affected persons attributed to disasters per 100,000 population, 13.1.2 Number of countries that adopt and implement national disaster risk reduction strategies in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030, 13.1.3 Proportion of local governments that adopt and implement local disaster risk reduction strategies in line with national disaster risk reduction strategies, 13.2 Integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies and planning, 13.2.1 Number of countries with nationally determined contributions, long-term strategies, national adaptation plans, strategies as reported in adaptation communications and national communications, 13.2.2 Total greenhouse gas emissions per year, 13.3 Improve education, awareness-raising and human and institutional capacity on climate change mitigation, adaptation, impact reduction and early warning, 13.3.1 Extent to which (i) global citizenship education and (ii) education for sustainable development are mainstreamed in (a) national education policies; (b) curricula; (c) teacher education; and (d) student assessment, 13.a Implement the commitment undertaken by developed-country parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to a goal of mobilizing jointly $100 billion annually by 2020 from all sources to address the needs of developing countries in the context of meaningful mitigation actions and transparency on implementation and fully operationalize the Green Climate Fund through its capitalization as soon as possible, 13.a.1 Amounts provided and mobilized in United States dollars per year in relation to the continued existing collective mobilization goal of the $100 billion commitment through to 2025, 13.b Promote mechanisms for raising capacity for effective climate change-related planning and management in least developed countries and small island developing States, including focusing on women, youth and local and marginalized communities, 13.b.1 Number of least developed countries and small island developing States with nationally determined contributions, long-term strategies, national adaptation plans, strategies as reported in adaptation communications and national communications, 14.1 By 2025, prevent and significantly reduce marine pollution of all kinds, in particular from land-based activities, including marine debris and nutrient pollution, 14.1.1 (a) Index of coastal eutrophication; and (b) plastic debris density, 14.2 By 2020, sustainably manage and protect marine and coastal ecosystems to avoid significant adverse impacts, including by strengthening their resilience, and take action for their restoration in order to achieve healthy and productive oceans, 14.2.1 Number of countries using ecosystem-based approaches to managing marine areas, 14.3 Minimize and address the impacts of ocean acidification, including through enhanced scientific cooperation at all levels, 14.3.1 Average marine acidity (pH) measured at agreed suite of representative sampling stations, 14.4 By 2020, effectively regulate harvesting and end overfishing, illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and destructive fishing practices and implement science-based management plans, in order to restore fish stocks in the shortest time feasible, at least to levels that can produce maximum sustainable yield as determined by their biological characteristics, 14.4.1 Proportion of fish stocks within biologically sustainable levels, 14.5 By 2020, conserve at least 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, consistent with national and international law and based on the best available scientific information, 14.5.1 Coverage of protected areas in relation to marine areas, 14.6 By 2020, prohibit certain forms of fisheries subsidies which contribute to overcapacity and overfishing, eliminate subsidies that contribute to illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and refrain from introducing new such subsidies, recognizing that appropriate and effective special and differential treatment for developing and least developed countries should be an integral part of the World Trade Organization fisheries subsidies negotiation4, 14.6.1 Degree of implementation of international instruments aiming to combat illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing, 14.7 By 2030, increase the economic benefits to small island developing States and least developed countries from the sustainable use of marine resources, including through sustainable management of fisheries, aquaculture and tourism, 14.7.1 Sustainable fisheries as a proportion of GDP in small island developing States, least developed countries and all countries, 14.a Increase scientific knowledge, develop research capacity and transfer marine technology, taking into account the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Criteria and Guidelines on the Transfer of Marine Technology, in order to improve ocean health and to enhance the contribution of marine biodiversity to the development of developing countries, in particular small island developing States and least developed countries, 14.a.1 Proportion of total research budget allocated to research in the field of marine technology, 14.b Provide access for small-scale artisanal fishers to marine resources and markets, 14.b.1 Degree of application of a legal/regulatory/ policy/institutional framework which recognizes and protects access rights for small-scale fisheries, 14.c Enhance the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and their resources by implementing international law as reflected in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, which provides the legal framework for the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and their resources, as recalled in paragraph 158 of “The future we want”, 14.c.1 Number of countries making progress in ratifying, accepting and implementing through legal, policy and institutional frameworks, ocean-related instruments that implement international law, as reflected in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, for the conservation and sustainable use of the oceans and their resources, 15.1 By 2020, ensure the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements, 15.1.1 Forest area as a proportion of total land area, 15.1.2 Proportion of important sites for terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity that are covered by protected areas, by ecosystem type, 15.2 By 2020, promote the implementation of sustainable management of all types of forests, halt deforestation, restore degraded forests and substantially increase afforestation and reforestation globally, 15.2.1 Progress towards sustainable forest management, 15.3 By 2030, combat desertification, restore degraded land and soil, including land affected by desertification, drought and floods, and strive to achieve a land degradation-neutral world, 15.3.1 Proportion of land that is degraded over total land area, 15.4 By 2030, ensure the conservation of mountain ecosystems, including their biodiversity, in order to enhance their capacity to provide benefits that are essential for sustainable development, 15.4.1 Coverage by protected areas of important sites for mountain biodiversity, 15.5 Take urgent and significant action to reduce the degradation of natural habitats, halt the loss of biodiversity and, by 2020, protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species, 15.6 Promote fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and promote appropriate access to such resources, as internationally agreed, 15.6.1 Number of countries that have adopted legislative, administrative and policy frameworks to ensure fair and equitable sharing of benefits, 15.7 Take urgent action to end poaching and trafficking of protected species of flora and fauna and address both demand and supply of illegal wildlife products, 15.7.1 Proportion of traded wildlife that was poached or illicitly trafficked, 15.8 By 2020, introduce measures to prevent the introduction and significantly reduce the impact of invasive alien species on land and water ecosystems and control or eradicate the priority species, 15.8.1 Proportion of countries adopting relevant national legislation and adequately resourcing the prevention or control of invasive alien species, 15.9 By 2020, integrate ecosystem and biodiversity values into national and local planning, development processes, poverty reduction strategies and accounts, 15.9.1 (a) Number of countries that have established national targets in accordance with or similar to Aichi Biodiversity Target 2 of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011–2020 in their national biodiversity strategy and action plans and the progress reported towards these targets; and (b) integration of biodiversity into national accounting and reporting systems, defined as implementation of the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting, 15.a Mobilize and significantly increase financial resources from all sources to conserve and sustainably use biodiversity and ecosystems, 15.a.1 (a) Official development assistance on conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity; and (b) revenue generated and finance mobilized from biodiversity-relevant economic instruments, 15.b Mobilize significant resources from all sources and at all levels to finance sustainable forest management and provide adequate incentives to developing countries to advance such management, including for conservation and reforestation, 15.b.1 (a) Official development assistance on conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity; and (b) revenue generated and finance mobilized from biodiversity-relevant economic instruments, 15.c Enhance global support for efforts to combat poaching and trafficking of protected species, including by increasing the capacity of local communities to pursue sustainable livelihood opportunities, 15.c.1 Proportion of traded wildlife that was poached or illicitly trafficked, 16.1 Significantly reduce all forms of violence and related death rates everywhere, 16.1.1 Number of victims of intentional homicide per 100,000 population, by sex and age, 16.1.2 Conflict-related deaths per 100,000 population, by sex, age and cause, 16.1.3 Proportion of population subjected to (a) physical violence, (b) psychological violence and (c) sexual violence in the previous 12 months, 16.1.4 Proportion of population that feel safe walking alone around the area they live, 16.2 End abuse, exploitation, trafficking and all forms of violence against and torture of children, 16.2.1 Proportion of children aged 1–17 years who experienced any physical punishment and/or psychological aggression by caregivers in the past month, 16.2.2 Number of victims of human trafficking per 100,000 population, by sex, age and form of exploitation, 16.2.3 Proportion of young women and men aged 18–29 years who experienced sexual violence by age 18, 16.3 Promote the rule of law at the national and international levels and ensure equal access to justice for all, 16.3.1 Proportion of victims of violence in the previous 12 months who reported their victimization to competent authorities or other officially recognized conflict resolution mechanisms, 16.3.2 Unsentenced detainees as a proportion of overall prison population, 16.3.3 Proportion of the population who have experienced a dispute in the past two years and who accessed a formal or informal dispute resolution mechanism, by type of mechanism, 16.4 By 2030, significantly reduce illicit financial and arms flows, strengthen the recovery and return of stolen assets and combat all forms of organized crime, 16.4.1 Total value of inward and outward illicit financial flows (in current United States dollars), 16.4.2 Proportion of seized, found or surrendered arms whose illicit origin or context has been traced or established by a competent authority in line with international instruments, 16.5 Substantially reduce corruption and bribery in all their forms, 16.5.1 Proportion of persons who had at least one contact with a public official and who paid a bribe to a public official, or were asked for a bribe by those public officials, during the previous 12 months, 16.5.2 Proportion of businesses that had at least one contact with a public official and that paid a bribe to a public official, or were asked for a bribe by those public officials during the previous 12 months, 16.6 Develop effective, accountable and transparent institutions at all levels, 16.6.1 Primary government expenditures as a proportion of original approved budget, by sector (or by budget codes or similar), 16.6.2 Proportion of population satisfied with their last experience of public services, 16.7 Ensure responsive, inclusive, participatory and representative decision-making at all levels, 16.7.1 Proportions of positions in national and local institutions, including (a) the legislatures; (b) the public service; and (c) the judiciary, compared to national distributions, by sex, age, persons with disabilities and population groups, 16.7.2 Proportion of population who believe decision-making is inclusive and responsive, by sex, age, disability and population group, 16.8 Broaden and strengthen the participation of developing countries in the institutions of global governance, 16.8.1 Proportion of members and voting rights of developing countries in international organizations, 16.9 By 2030, provide legal identity for all, including birth registration, 16.9.1 Proportion of children under 5 years of age whose births have been registered with a civil authority, by age, 16.10 Ensure public access to information and protect fundamental freedoms, in accordance with national legislation and international agreements, 16.10.1 Number of verified cases of killing, kidnapping, enforced disappearance, arbitrary detention and torture of journalists, associated media personnel, trade unionists and human rights advocates in the previous 12 months, 16.10.2 Number of countries that adopt and implement constitutional, statutory and/or policy guarantees for public access to information, 16.a Strengthen relevant national institutions, including through international cooperation, for building capacity at all levels, in particular in developing countries, to prevent violence and combat terrorism and crime, 16.a.1 Existence of independent national human rights institutions in compliance with the Paris Principles, 16.b Promote and enforce non-discriminatory laws and policies for sustainable development, 16.b.1 Proportion of population reporting having personally felt discriminated against or harassed in the previous 12 months on the basis of a ground of discrimination prohibited under international human rights law, 17.1 Strengthen domestic resource mobilization, including through international support to developing countries, to improve domestic capacity for tax and other revenue collection, 17.1.1 Total government revenue as a proportion of GDP, by source, 17.1.2 Proportion of domestic budget funded by domestic taxes, 17.2 Developed countries to implement fully their official development assistance commitments, including the commitment by many developed countries to achieve the target of 0.7 per cent of gross national income for official development assistance (ODA/GNI) to developing countries and 0.15 to 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed countries; ODA providers are encouraged to consider setting a target to provide at least 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed countries, 17.2.1 Net official development assistance, total and to least developed countries, as a proportion of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Development Assistance Committee donors’ gross national income (GNI), 17.3 Mobilize additional financial resources for developing countries from multiple sources, 17.3.1 Foreign direct investment, official development assistance and South-South cooperation as a proportion of gross national income, 17.3.2 Volume of remittances (in United States dollars) as a proportion of total GDP, 17.4 Assist developing countries in attaining long-term debt sustainability through coordinated policies aimed at fostering debt financing, debt relief and debt restructuring, as appropriate, and address the external debt of highly indebted poor countries to reduce debt distress, 17.4.1 Debt service as a proportion of exports of goods and services, 17.5 Adopt and implement investment promotion regimes for least developed countries, 17.5.1 Number of countries that adopt and implement investment promotion regimes for developing countries, including the least developed countries, 17.6 Enhance North-South, South-South and triangular regional and international cooperation on and access to science, technology and innovation and enhance knowledge-sharing on mutually agreed terms, including through improved coordination among existing mechanisms, in particular at the United Nations level, and through a global technology facilitation mechanism, 17.6.1 Fixed Internet broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants, by speed, 17.7 Promote the development, transfer, dissemination and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies to developing countries on favourable terms, including on concessional and preferential terms, as mutually agreed, 17.7.1 Total amount of funding for developing countries to promote the development, transfer, dissemination and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies, 17.8 Fully operationalize the technology bank and science, technology and innovation capacity-building mechanism for least developed countries by 2017 and enhance the use of enabling technology, in particular information and communications technology, 17.8.1 Proportion of individuals using the Internet, 17.9 Enhance international support for implementing effective and targeted capacity-building in developing countries to support national plans to implement all the Sustainable Development Goals, including through north–south, South-South and triangular cooperation, 17.9.1 Dollar value of financial and technical assistance (including through north–south, South‑South and triangular cooperation) committed to developing countries, 17.10 Promote a universal, rules-based, open, non‑discriminatory and equitable multilateral trading system under the World Trade Organization, including through the conclusion of negotiations under its Doha Development Agenda, 17.10.1 Worldwide weighted tariff-average, 17.11 Significantly increase the exports of developing countries, in particular with a view to doubling the least developed countries’ share of global exports by 2020, 17.11.1 Developing countries’ and least developed countries’ share of global exports, 17.12 Realize timely implementation of duty-free and quota-free market access on a lasting basis for all least developed countries, consistent with World Trade Organization decisions, including by ensuring that preferential rules of origin applicable to imports from least developed countries are transparent and simple, and contribute to facilitating market access, 17.12.1 Weighted average tariffs faced by developing countries, least developed countries and small island developing States, 17.13 Enhance global macroeconomic stability, including through policy coordination and policy coherence, 17.14 Enhance policy coherence for sustainable development, 17.14.1 Number of countries with mechanisms in place to enhance policy coherence of sustainable development, 17.15 Respect each country's policy space and leadership to establish and implement policies for poverty eradication and sustainable development, 17.15.1 Extent of use of country-owned results frameworks and planning tools by providers of development cooperation, 17.16 Enhance the Global Partnership for Sustainable Development, complemented by multi-stakeholder partnerships that mobilize and share knowledge, expertise, technology and financial resources, to support the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals in all countries, in particular developing countries, 17.16.1 Number of countries reporting progress in multi-stakeholder development effectiveness monitoring frameworks that support the achievement of the sustainable development goals, 17.17 Encourage and promote effective public, public-private and civil society partnerships, building on the experience and resourcing strategies of partnerships, 17.17.1 Amount in United States dollars committed to public-private partnerships for infrastructure, 17.18 By 2020, enhance capacity-building support to developing countries, including for least developed countries and small island developing States, to increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts, 17.18.1 Statistical capacity indicator for Sustainable Development Goal monitoring, 17.18.2 Number of countries that have national statistical legislation that complies with the Fundamental Principles of Official Statistics, 17.18.3 Number of countries with a national statistical plan that is fully funded and under implementation, by source of funding, 17.19 By 2030, build on existing initiatives to develop measurements of progress on sustainable development that complement gross domestic product, and support statistical capacity-building in developing countries, 17.19.1 Dollar value of all resources made available to strengthen statistical capacity in developing countries, 17.19.2 Proportion of countries that (a) have conducted at least one population and housing census in the last 10 years; and (b) have achieved 100 per cent birth registration and 80 per cent death registration. 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